Visitors

class libcst.CSTVisitor[source]

The low-level base visitor class for traversing a CST. This should be used in conjunction with the visit() method on a CSTNode to visit each element in a tree starting with that node. Unlike CSTTransformer, instances of this class cannot modify the tree.

When visiting nodes using a CSTVisitor, the return value of visit() will equal the passed in tree.

on_visit(node: CSTNode) → bool[source]

Called every time a node is visited, before we’ve visited its children.

Returns True if children should be visited, and returns False otherwise.

on_leave(original_node: CSTNode) → None[source]

Called every time we leave a node, after we’ve visited its children. If the on_visit() function for this node returns False, this function will still be called on that node.

on_visit_attribute(node: CSTNode, attribute: str) → None[source]

Called before a node’s child attribute is visited and after we have called on_visit() on the node. A node’s child attributes are visited in the order that they appear in source that this node originates from.

on_leave_attribute(original_node: CSTNode, attribute: str) → None[source]

Called after a node’s child attribute is visited and before we have called on_leave() on the node.

class libcst.CSTTransformer[source]

The low-level base visitor class for traversing a CST and creating an updated copy of the original CST. This should be used in conjunction with the visit() method on a CSTNode to visit each element in a tree starting with that node, and possibly returning a new node in its place.

When visiting nodes using a CSTTransformer, the return value of visit() will be a new tree with any changes made in on_leave() calls reflected in its children.

on_visit(node: CSTNode) → bool[source]

Called every time a node is visited, before we’ve visited its children.

Returns True if children should be visited, and returns False otherwise.

on_leave(original_node: CSTNodeT, updated_node: CSTNodeT) → Union[CSTNodeT, libcst._removal_sentinel.RemovalSentinel, libcst._flatten_sentinel.FlattenSentinel[~CSTNodeT][CSTNodeT]][source]

Called every time we leave a node, after we’ve visited its children. If the on_visit() function for this node returns False, this function will still be called on that node.

original_node is guaranteed to be the same node as is passed to on_visit(), so it is safe to do state-based checks using the is operator. Modifications should always be performed on the updated_node so as to not overwrite changes made by child visits.

Returning RemovalSentinel.REMOVE indicates that the node should be removed from its parent. This is not always possible, and may raise an exception if this node is required. As a convenience, you can use RemoveFromParent() as an alias to RemovalSentinel.REMOVE.

on_visit_attribute(node: CSTNode, attribute: str) → None[source]

Called before a node’s child attribute is visited and after we have called on_visit() on the node. A node’s child attributes are visited in the order that they appear in source that this node originates from.

on_leave_attribute(original_node: CSTNode, attribute: str) → None[source]

Called after a node’s child attribute is visited and before we have called on_leave() on the node.

Unlike on_leave(), this function does not allow modifications to the tree and is provided solely for state management.

libcst.RemoveFromParent() → libcst._removal_sentinel.RemovalSentinel[source]

A convenience method for requesting that this node be removed by its parent. Use this in place of returning RemovalSentinel directly. For example, to remove all arguments unconditionally:

def leave_Arg(
    self, original_node: cst.Arg, updated_node: cst.Arg
) -> Union[cst.Arg, cst.RemovalSentinel]:
    return RemoveFromParent()
class libcst.RemovalSentinel[source]

A RemovalSentinel.REMOVE value should be returned by a CSTTransformer.on_leave() method when we want to remove that child from its parent. As a convenience, this can be constructed by calling libcst.RemoveFromParent().

The parent node should make a best-effort to remove the child, but may raise an exception when removing the child doesn’t make sense, or could change the semantics in an unexpected way. For example, a function definition with no name doesn’t make sense, but removing one of the arguments is valid.

In we can’t automatically remove the child, the developer should instead remove the child by constructing a new parent in the parent’s on_leave() call.

We use this instead of None to force developers to be explicit about deletions. Because None is the default return value for a function with no return statement, it would be too easy to accidentally delete nodes from the tree by forgetting to return a value.

REMOVE = 1
class libcst.FlattenSentinel[source]

A FlattenSentinel may be returned by a CSTTransformer.on_leave() method when one wants to replace a node with multiple nodes. The replaced node must be contained in a Sequence attribute such as body. This is generally the case for BaseStatement and BaseSmallStatement. For example to insert a print before every return:

def leave_Return(
    self, original_node: cst.Return, updated_node: cst.Return
) -> Union[cst.Return, cst.RemovalSentinel, cst.FlattenSentinel[cst.BaseSmallStatement]]:
    log_stmt = cst.Expr(cst.parse_expression("print('returning')"))
    return cst.FlattenSentinel([log_stmt, updated_node])

Returning an empty FlattenSentinel is equivalent to returning cst.RemovalSentinel.REMOVE and is subject to its requirements.

Visit and Leave Helper Functions

While it is possible to subclass from CSTVisitor or CSTTransformer and override the on_visit/on_leave/on_visit_attribute/on_leave_attribute functions directly, it is not recommended. The default implementation for both visitors will look up any visit_<Type[CSTNode]>, leave_<Type[CSTNode]>, visit_<Type[CSTNode]>_<attribute> and leave_<Type[CSTNode]>_<attribute> method on the visitor subclass and call them directly. If such a function exists for the node in question, the visitor base class will call the relevant function, respecting the above outlined semantics. If the function does not exist, the visitor base class will assume that you do not care about that node and visit its children for you without requiring a default implementation.

Much like on_visit, visit_<Type[CSTNode]> return a boolean specifying whether or not LibCST should visit a node’s children. As a convenience, you can return None instead of a boolean value from your visit_<Type[CSTNode]> functions. Returning a None value is treated as a request for default behavior, which causes the visitor to traverse children. It is equivalent to returning True, but requires no explicit return.

For example, the below visitor will visit every function definition, traversing to its children only if the function name doesn’t include the word “foo”. Notice that we don’t need to provide our own on_visit or on_leave function, nor do we need to provide visit and leave functions for the rest of the nodes which we do not care about. This will have the effect of visiting all strings not inside of functions that have “foo” in the name. Note that we take advantage of default behavior when we decline to return a value in visit_SimpleString.

class FooingAround(libcst.CSTVisitor):
    def visit_FunctionDef(self, node: libcst.FunctionDef) -> bool:
        return "foo" not in node.name.value

    def visit_SimpleString(self, node: libcst.SimpleString) -> None:
        print(node.value)

An example Python REPL using the above visitor is as follows:

>>> import libcst
>>> demo = libcst.parse_module("'abc'\n'123'\ndef foo():\n    'not printed'")
>>> _ = demo.visit(FooingAround())
'abc'
'123'

Traversal Order

Traversal of any parsed tree directly matches the order that tokens appear in the source which was parsed. LibCST will first call on_visit for the node. Then, for each of the node’s child attributes, LibCST will call on_visit_attribute for the node’s attribute, followed by running the same visit algorithm on each child node in the node’s attribute. Then, on_leave_attribute is called. After each attribute has been fully traversed, LibCST will call on_leave for the node. Note that LibCST will only call on_visit_attribute and on_leave_attribute for attributes in which there might be a LibCST node as a child. It will not call attribute visitors for attributes which are built-in python types.

For example, take the following simple tree generated by calling parse_expression("1+2").

BinaryOperation(
    left=Integer(
        value='1',
        lpar=[],
        rpar=[],
    ),
    operator=Add(
        whitespace_before=SimpleWhitespace(
            value='',
        ),
        whitespace_after=SimpleWhitespace(
            value='',
        ),
    ),
    right=Integer(
        value='2',
        lpar=[],
        rpar=[],
    ),
    lpar=[],
    rpar=[],
)

Assuming you have a visitor that overrides every convenience helper method available, methods will be called in this order:

visit_BinaryOperation
visit_BinaryOperation_lpar
leave_BinaryOperation_lpar
visit_BinaryOperation_left
visit_Integer
visit_Integer_lpar
leave_Integer_lpar
visit_Integer_rpar
leave_Integer_rpar
leave_Integer
leave_BinaryOperation_left
visit_BinaryOperation_operator
visit_Add
visit_Add_whitespace_before
visit_SimpleWhitespace
leave_SimpleWhitespace
leave_Add_whitespace_before
visit_Add_whitespace_after
visit_SimpleWhitespace
leave_SimpleWhitespace
leave_Add_whitespace_after
leave_Add
leave_BinaryOperation_operator
visit_BinaryOperation_right
visit_Integer
visit_Integer_lpar
leave_Integer_lpar
visit_Integer_rpar
leave_Integer_rpar
leave_Integer
leave_BinaryOperation_right
visit_BinaryOperation_rpar
leave_BinaryOperation_rpar
leave_BinaryOperation

Batched Visitors

A batchable visitor class is provided to facilitate performing operations that can be performed in parallel in a single traversal over a CST. An example of this is metadata computation.

class libcst.BatchableCSTVisitor[source]

The low-level base visitor class for traversing a CST as part of a batched set of traversals. This should be used in conjunction with the visit_batched() function or the visit_batched() method from MetadataWrapper to visit a tree. Instances of this class cannot modify the tree.

get_visitors() → Mapping[str, Callable[[CSTNode], None]][source]

Returns a mapping of all the visit_<Type[CSTNode]>, visit_<Type[CSTNode]>_<attribute>, leave_<Type[CSTNode]> and leave_<Type[CSTNode]>_<attribute>` methods defined by this visitor, excluding all empty stubs.

libcst.visit_batched(node: CSTNodeT, batchable_visitors: Iterable[libcst._batched_visitor.BatchableCSTVisitor], before_visit: Optional[Callable[[CSTNode], None]] = None, after_leave: Optional[Callable[[CSTNode], None]] = None) → CSTNodeT[source]

Do a batched traversal over node with all visitors.

before_visit and after_leave are provided as optional hooks to execute before the visit_<Type[CSTNode]> and after the leave_<Type[CSTNode]> methods from each visitor in visitor are executed by the batched visitor.

This function does not handle metadata dependency resolution for visitors. See visit_batched() from MetadataWrapper for batched traversal with metadata dependency resolution.